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  英语在线学习-Part l


  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay that begins with the sentence "Nowadayscultivating independent learning ability is becoming increasingly crucial for personal development." you canmake comments, cite examples or use vour persongl experiences to develop vour essay, You should write at leas150 words but no more than 200 words. You should copy the sentence given in quotes at the beginning of youlessay.)


  “Nowadays cultivating independent learning ability is becoming increasingly crucial for personadevelopment."

  In today's rapidly changing world, the ability tolearn independently is more important than ever.Independent learning empowers individuals to take charge of their own educational journey, beyond traditionaclassroom settings. This skill not only enhaquisition but also fosterscritical thinkingproblem-solving, and adaptability.

  Indepen dent learners possess the initiative to seek out information, resources, and opportunities for growthThey are proactive in setting goals, managing their time effectively, and overcoming challenges without constantsupervision. This self-directed approach not only builds confidence but also prepares individuals for lifelonglearning in various domains.

  For instance, in my own experience, cultivating independent learning skills has allowed me to explore diverseinterests beyond my formal education. Through online courses, books, and practical projects, l have developedexpertise in areas that traditional schooling did not cover comprehensively. This continuous learning process ha.not only enriched my knowledge but also expanded my career opportunities and personal fulfilment.

  In conclusion, fostering independent learning ability equips individuals with the tools needed to thrive in adynamic and competitive world. By embracing self-directed learning, individuals can adapt to new challengesseize opportunities for growth, and achieve their personal and professional aspirations effectively.Therefore,investing in independent learning skills is not just beneficial but essential for personal development in the modernera.







  英语在线学习- Part ll Listening Comprehension


  英语在线学习- Part lll Reading comprehension

  Section A

  Directions: in this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blankfrom a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully beforemaking your choices, Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter, Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank morethan once.


  26. C) dispersion

  27. H) perceive

  28. M) relation

  29. F) optical

  30. N) spectrum

  31. 0) stands

  32. E) hanging

  33. A) bounces

  34. G) originates

  35.B) completely


  Source: WorldAtlas

  Title: How ls A Rainbow Formed?


  A rainbow is a multi-colored, arc-shaped phenomenon that can appear in the sky. The colors of a rainbow areproduced by the reflection and 26-C) dispersion of light through water droplets present in the atmosphere. Arobserver may 27-H) perceive a rainbow to be located either near or far away, however, this phenomenon is noactually located at any specific spot. instead, the appearance of a rainbow depends entirely upon the position otthe observer in 28-M) relation to the direction of light, in essence, a rainbow is an 29-F) optical illusion.

  Rainbows present a 30-N) spectrum made up of seven colors in a specific order. in fact, school children inmany English-speaking countries are taught to remember the name "Roy G. Biv" as a mnemonic device folremembering the colors of a rainbow and their order. "Roy G. Biv” 31-0) stands for: red, orange, yellow, greenblue, indigo, and violet. The outer edge of the rainbow arc is red, while the inner edge is violet.

  A rainbow is formed when light (generally sunlight) passes through water droplets 32-E) hanging in theatmosphere. The light waves change direction as they pass through the water droplets, resulting in two processesreflection and refraction. When light reflects off a water droplet, it simply 33-A) bounces back in the oppositedirection from where it 34-G) originates. When light refracts, it takes a different direction. Some individuals referto retracted ieht as "bent light waves, A rainbow is formed because white ight enters the water dronlet. where ibends in several different directions. When these bent light waves reach the other side of the water droplet, theyreflect back out of the droplet instead of 35-B) completely passing the water. Since the white light is separatedinside of the water, the refracted light appears as separate colors to the human eye.

  A) bounces

  B) completely

  C) dispersion


  E) hanging

  F) optical

  G) originates

  H) perceive





  M) relation

  N) spectrum

  0) stands

  Section B

  Directions: in this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statementcontains information given in one of the paragraphs. ldentify the paragraph from which the information is derivedYou may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions bymarking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.



  Source: BBC

  Title: Blame your worthlessorkdays on 'meeting recovery syndrome

  Blame your worthless workdays on 'meeting recovery syndrome

  [A] Phylis Hartman knows what it's like to wade through the depths of ofice meeting hel. Managers at one ofher former human resources jobs arranged so many; that attendees would fall asleep at the table or intentionally arrive late. With hours of her day blocked up with unnecessary meetings, she was often forcedto make up her work during overtime. “l was actually working more hours than l probably would haveneeded to to get the work done," says Hartman, who is founder and president of PGHR Consulting inPittsburgh in the US state of Pennsylvania, and anexpert panellist for the Society for Human Resource Management.

  [B] she isn't alone in her frustration - not by a long shot, Between 11 million and 55 million meetings are heldand 15% of their personnel budgets.40)Every week, employees spend abouthours in meetings, while the average manager meets for astaggering 23 hours.

  [C] 44-C)And though experts agree that traditional meetingsare essential for making certain decisions ancdeveloping strategy, some employees view them as one of the most unnecessary parts of the workday. Theresult is not only hundreds of billions ofwasted dollars, but an exacerbation of what organisationapsychologists call “meeting recovery syndrome'spent cooling off and regaining focus after a uselessmeeting.

  [D] 36-D) Meeting recovery syndrome MRs) is a concept that should be familiar to almost anyone who has held a formaljob.It isn't ground-breaking tofatigued and bleary after a meeting, but ony ir recent decades have scientists deemed the condition worthy of further investigation. With its links to organisational efficiency and emplovee wellbeing, MRs has attracted the attention of psychologists aware othe need to understand its precise causes and cures

  [E] Today, insofar as researchers can hypothesise, lRs is most easily understood as a slow replenishment offinite mental and physical resources. When an employee sits through an ineffective meeting their brairpower is essentially being drained away, says Joseph A Allen, a professor of occupational and environmentahealth at the University of Utah. 42-E) Meetings sap stamina if they last too long, fail to engage emplovees or turn into one-sided lectures. Taking time to recover is a must, but all too often doing so comes at the expense of productivity.

  [F] The conservation of resources theory, originally posited in 1989 by Dr Stevan Hobfol, states thatpsychological stress occurs when a person's resources are threatened or lost. When resources are low, a person will shift into defence to conserve their remaining supply. in the case of office meetings, where some of employees' most valuable resources are their focus, alertness and motivation, this can mean an abrupt halt in productivity as they take time to recover. As humans, when we transition from one task to another on the job - say from sitting in a meeting to doing normal work - it takes an effortful cognitive switch. We mus expend significant mental energy to move on, Allen says. 39-F)"Ifwe are already drained to dangerous levelsthen making the mental switch to the next thing is extretough," he says.“it's common to see people cyber-loafing after a frustrating meeting, going and getting coffee, interrupting a colleague and telling them about the meeting, and so on.

  [G] Each person's ability to recover from horrible meetings is different. Some can bounce back quickly, while others carry their fatigue until the end of the workday. Yet while no formal MRS studies are currentl underway, Alen can loosely speculate on the length of an average emplovee's lag time. switching tasks in anon-MRS condition? Perhans 10 to 15 minutesWith MRS, it may take as long as 45 minutes on average.

  [H] 37-H) In an effort to combat the side effects ofat the University of Nebraska Omaha, published a studydetailing the best ways to avoid common traps including a concise checklist of dos and don tsworkplace.Drawingfrom around 200 papersto compile their comprehensive list,Mroz and his team may now hold a modern antidote to the largel undefined problem of MRS.

  [ilMroz savs a good place to start is asking ourselves if our meetings are even necessary in the first place. lf althat's on the agenda is a quick catch-up, or some non-urgent information sharing, it may better suit thegroup to send around an email instead. "The second thing l would always recommend is keep the meeting assmall as possible," says Mroz. "lf they don't actually have some kind of immediate input, then they can follov

  up later. They don't need to be sitting in this hour-long meeting" 43-l) Less time in meetings woulcultimately lead to more emplovee engagement in the meetings they do attend, which experts agree is a proven remedy for MRS

  [j]Employees also feel taxed when they are invited en masse to meetings that don't inspire articipation, saysCliff Scott, professor of organisational science at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. lt takesprecious time for them to vent their emotions, complain and try to regain focus after a pointless meeting one of the main pitfalls of MRs. Over time as employees find themselves tied up in more and moreunnecessary meetings - and thus dealing with increasing lag times from meeting recovery syndrome - the waste of workday hours can feel insulting

  [K] 41-K) Despite the relative scarcity of research behind the subiect, Hartman has taught herself many of thesame tricks suggested in Mroz's study, and has come a long way since her days of being bogged down withunnecessary meetings. The people she invites to meetings today include not just the essential employeesbut also representatives from every department that might have a stake in the issue at hand. Managers likeher, who seek input even fromnon-experts to shape their decisions, can find greater support andcooperation from their workforce, she says

  [L] But the onus to keep meetings on track doesn't fall solely on managers. Attendees can derail even awell-structured meeting if they act negatively, says Mroz. lf other people start to agree with their criticisms, a'complaining cycle" can quickly drag down momentum and make it difficult for the leader to get everyone back on track,45-L)If an organisation were tosugcestions from Mroz and Alen's findings.thmost noticeable difference would be a stark decrease in the totanumber of meetings on the schedule

  Mroz savs. Less time in meetingsyee engagement in the meetings they do attend,which experts agree is a proven remedy for future cases of MRS.

  [M] While none of the counter-MRS ideas have beentestedempiricalvy yet, Allen says one trick with promise is for employees to identify things that guickly change their mood from negative to positive, As simple as itsounds, finding a personal happy place, going there and then coming straight back to work might key to expediting recovery time.

  [N] Leaders should see also themselves as "stewards of everyone else's valuable time", adds Steven Rogelbergauthor of The Surprising Science of Meetings, Having the skills to foresee potential pitfalls and treatemployees' stamina with care allows leaders to provide effective short-term deterrents to Rs. Mosimportant, however, is for organisations to awaken to the concept of meetings being flexible, says Allen. 38-N

  By taking a proactive approach to reshaping the way they prioritise emplovees’time, companies can eliminate the very sources of MRs in their tracks.

  [O]“We have to flip the script of years and years of socialisation and the acceptance of meetings as sites of pain when they should be places of gain," Allen says. "All we have to do is convince people they are not helpless, it

  is not hopeless, and here's some things you already know that can make your work-life better, one meeting at a time."

  36. Although employees are said to be fatigued by meetings, the condition has not been considered worthy offurther research until recently.

  37. Mroz and his team compiled a list of what to do and what not to do to remedy the problem of MRs

  38. Companies can get rid of the root cause of MRs if they give priority to workers' time.

  39. lf workers are exhausted to a dangerous degree, it is extremely hard for them to transition to the next task.

  40. Employees in America spend a lot of time attending meetings while the number of hours managers meet isseveral times more.41. Phylis Hartman has learned by herself many of the ways Mroz suggested in his study and made remarkablesuccess in freeing herself from unnecessary meetings

  42. When meetings continue too long or don't engage employees, they deplete vitality

  43. When the time of meetings is reduced, employees will be more engaged in the meetings they do participate in.

  44. Some employees consider meetings one of the most dispensable parts of the workday

  45. According to Mroz, if all his suggestions were applied, a very obvious change would be a steep decrease in

  the number of meetings scheduled.

  Section C

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinisheastatements. For each ofthem there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choiceand mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

  [Key] ABBCD




  46. Why does the author say sarcasm and jazz have something surprisingly in common?

  A) Both are recognized when heard.

  47. How do many people feel when they hear sarcastic comments?

  B) They feel belittled and disrespected

  48. What happens when a person consistently actss arcastically?

  B) They feel increasingly insecure and hostile.

  49. What does the author say about people quitting sarcastic comments?

  C) lt benefits not only themselves but also those around them.

  50. What is the chief difference between a speaker's wit and sarcasm?

  D) Their intention.

  Passage Two

  Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage

  [Key] ADBDC


  Source: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

  Title: The role of variability: From playing tennis to learning language

  Variability is crucially important for learning new skills. Consider learning how to serve in tennis. should youalways practice serving from the exact same location on the court, aiming at exactly the same spot? Althoughpractising in more variable conditions will be slower at first, it will likely make you a better tennis plaver at the endThis is because variability leads to better generalisation of what is learned.

  This principle is found in many domains, includingspeech perception, grammar and learning words andcategories.51)For instanceintants wi strugg élearn the category 'dog'if they are only exposed toChihuahuas, instead of many different kinds of dogs lChihuahuas, Poodles and Great Danes)

  "There are over ten different names for this basic principle!," says MPl's limor Raviv, the senior investigatoiof the study. "Learning from less variable input is often fast, but may fail to generalise to new stimuli. But theseimportant insights have not been unified into a single theoretical framework, which has obscured the bigger


  To identify key patterns and understand the underlying, principles of variability effects, Raviv and helcolleagues reviewed over 150 studies on variability and generalisation across fields, including computer sciencelinguistics, categorization, motor learning, visual perception and formal education

  The researchers discovered that, across studies, the term variability can refer to at least four different kindsof variability, such as set size (e.g. the number of different examples or locations on the tennis court) andscheduling (e.g. practice schedules with different orders or time52)"These four kinds of variability havelags).never been directly compared -- which means that we currently don't know which is most effective for learning,says Raviv.

  The impact of variability depends on whether it is relevant to the task or not (arguably, the colour of thetennis court is not relevant to serving practice). But according to the 'Mr, Miyagi principle'(inspired by the 1984classic movie Karate Kid), practicing seemingly unrelated skils (such as waxing cars) may actually benefit leamningof other skills (such as martial arts).

  But why does variability impact learning and generalisation? One theory is that more variable input cannot (colour is useful for distinguishing betweenhighlight which aspects of a task are relevant and which aremons and limes, but not for distinguishing between cars and trucks).

  Another theory is that greatervariability leads to broader generalisations. This is because variability willrepresent the real world better, including atypical examples (such as Chihuahuas).

  53 A third reason has to do with the way memory works, when training is variable, earners are forced to

  actively reconstruct their memories"Understanding the impact of variability is important for literally every aspect of our daily life. Beyondaffecting the way we learn language, motor skils, and categories, it even has an impact on our social lives,explains Raviv. 54) “For example, face recognition is affected by whether people grew up in a small communit!(fewer than 1000 people) or in larger community (over 30,000 people). Exposure to fewer faces during childhoocis associated with diminished face memory.

  55) "We hope this work will spark people's curiosity and generate more work on the topic,” concludes Raviv"Our paper raises a lot of open questions. For example: ls the relationship between variability and learning

  broadly similar across species, or are there species-specific adaptations? Can we find similar effects of variability

  beyond the brain, for instance in the immune system?'

  51. What does the passage say about infants learning the category "dog" ifthey are exposed to Chihuahuas only?

  A) They will encounter some degree of difficulty.

  52. What does Raviv say about the four different kinds of variability?

  D) Which of them is most conducive to learning is yet to be identified.

  53. How does one of the theories explain the importance of variability for learning new skills?

  B) Learners receiving variable training are compelled to reorganise their memories.

  54. What does the passage say about face recognition?

  D) The size of the community people grow up in impacts their face recognition ability.

  55. What does Raviv hope to do with their research work?

  C) Arouse people's interest in variability and stimulate more research on the topic.

  英语在线学习- Part lV


  (30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You shouldwrite your answer on Answer sheet .



  China is rich in bamboo and was one of the earliest countries to develop and utilize bamboo resourcesBamboo is widely distributed in China with diverse varieties. Bamboo is highly practical and used in many aspects

  of production and daily life, such as making chopsticks, tables, chairs, bridges, and houses. chinese people have adeep affection for bamboo, and since ancient times, countlessliterati have used bamboo as a theme to createcolorful literary and artistic works. The stem of bamboo is straight, symbolizing upright character. Bambocpossesses strong vitality and adaptability, able to survive even in harsh environments, thus symbolizing tenacityand resilience. For thousands of years, bamboo has been regarded as a symbol of the chinese national character