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  Traditional Farming System in Africa

  A. By tradition land in Luapula is not owned by individuals, but as in many other parts of Aficais allocated by the headman or headwoman of a village to people of either sex, according toneed. Since land is generally prepared by hand, one ulupwa cannot take on a very large area;in this sense land has not been a limiting resouree over large parts ofthe province. The situation has already changed near the main townships, and there has long been a searcity of land forcultivation in the Valley. In these areas registered ownership pattems are becoming prevalent.

  B. Most of the traditional cropping in Luapula, as in the Bemba area to the cast, is based oncitemene, a system whereby crops are grown on the ashes of tree branches. As a rule, entiretrees are not felled, but are pollarded so that they can regenerate, Branches are cut over an areaof varying size early in the dry season, and stacked to dry over a rough circle about a fifh to atenth of'the pollarded area, The wood is fired belore the rains and in the first year planted withthe African cereal fnger millet (Eleusine coracana).

  C. During the second season, and possibly for a few seasons more the area is planted tovariously mixed combinations of annuals such as maize, pumpkins (Telfria occidentalis) andother cucurbits, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, Phaseolus beans and various leafy vegetables.grown with a certain amount of rotation, The diverse sequence ends with vegetable cassava,which is olien planled inlo the developing last-but-one crop as a relay.

  D. Richards (1969) observed that the practice ofcitemene entails a delinite division of labourbetween men and women, A man stakes out a plot in an unobirusive manner, since it isconsidered provoeative towards one's neighbours to mark boundaries in an explicit way. Thedangerous work of felling branches is the men's province, and involves much pride. Branchesare stacke by the women, and fired by the men. Formerly women and men cooperated in theplanting work, but the harvesting was always done by the women. At the beginning ofthe cyelelittle weeding is necessary, since the firing of the branches eflectively destroys weeds. As thecyele progresses weeds increase and nutrients eventually become depleted to a point wherefurther ellort with annual crops is judged to be not worthwhile: at this point the cassava isplanted, sinee it can produce a crop on nearly exhausted soil. Thereafer the plot is abandoned and a new area pollarded for the next citemene cyele.

  E. When forest is not available - this is increasingly the case nowadays - various ridgingsystems (ibala) are built on small areas, to be planted with combinations of maize, beans.groundnuts and sweet potatoes, usually relayed with cassava.These plots are usually tendedby women, and provide subsistence, Where their roots have year-round access to water tablesmango, guava and oil-palm trecs ofen grow around houses, forming a traditional agroforestrysystem, In season some of the fruit is sold by the roadside or in local markets. ieltsx press

  F.The margins of dambos are sometimes planted to local varieties of rice during the rainyseason, and areas adjacent to vegetables irrigated with water from the dambo during the dryseason. The extent ofcultivation is very limited, no doubt because the growing of crops under dambo conditions calls for a great deal of skill, Near towns some of the vegetable produce issold in local markets.

  G. Fishing has long provided a much needed protein supplement to the diet of Luapulans, aswell as being the one substantial souree ofcash, Much fish is dried for sale to areas away fromthe main waterways, The Mweru and Bangweulu lake Basins are the main areas of year-roundfishing, but the Luapula River is also exploited during the latter part ofthe dry season. Severalpreviously abundant and desirable species, such as the Luapula salmon or mpumbu (Labeoaltivelis) and pale (Sarotherodon machochir) have all but disappeared fom Lake Mweru,apprently due to mismanaeement.

  H. Fishing has always been a far more remunerative activity in Luapula that crop husbandry.A fisherman may earn more in a week than a bean or maize grower in a whole season, lsometimes heard claims that the relatively high earings to be obtained from fishing inducedan 'easy come, easy go’outlook among Lupulan men, On the other hand, someone whosecures good but erratic earnings may feel that their investment in an economically productiveactivity is not worthwhile because Luapulans fail to cooperate well in such activities. Besides.a fisheran with spare cash will find liule in the way ofworking equipment to spend his moneyon, Better spend one's money in the bars and have a good time!

  I. (nly small numbers of cattle or oxen are kept in the province owing to the prevalence ofthetse-tse lly. For the few herds, the dambos provide subsistenee grazing during the dry season.The absence of animal draft power greatly limits peoples* ability to plough and cultivate land:a married couple can rarely manage to prepare by hand-hoeing. Most people keep freelyroaming chickens and goals. These act as a reserve for barlering, but may also be occasionallyslaughtered for ceremonies or for entertaining important visitors, These animals are not aregular part ofmnost peoples’ diet.

  J. Citemene has been an ingenious system for providing people with seasonal production ofhigh quality eereals and vegetables in regions of acid, heavily leached soils, Nutritionally, themost serious deficiency was that of protein, This could at times be alleviated when fish wasavailable, provided that cultivators lived near the Valley and could find the means of barteringfor dried fish. The citemene/fishing system was well adapted to the ecology of the miomboregions and sustainable for long periods, but only as long as human population densities stayedat low levels, Although population densities are still much lower than in several countries ofSouth-Fast Asia, neither the fisheries nor the forests and woodlands of Luapula are capable.with unmodified traditional practices, ofsupporting the people in a sustainable manner.

  Överall, people must learn to intensify and diversify their productive systems while yetensuring that these systems will remain productive in the future, when even more people willneed food. Increasing overall production of food, though a vast challenge in itself, will not be enough, however, At the same time storage and distribution systems must allow everyoneaccess to at least a modemate share ofthe total.

  Questions 1-4

  Complete the sentenees below with words taken from Reading Passage.Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Writeyour answers in boxes l.4 on your answer sheet.

  1. In Luapula land allocation is in accordanee with

  2. The citemene system provides the land withwhere crops are planted3. During the second scason, the last planted crop is

  4. Under suitable conditions, fruit trees are planted ncar

  Questions 5-8

  Classify the following items with the correct description, ieltsxpress logoWrite your answers in boxes $-8 on your answer sheet

  A. fsh



  5. be used in some unusual occasions, such as celebrations.

  6. cannot thrive for being affected by the pests.