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2021年6月英语四级真题和参考答案

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  说客英语为大家带了2021年6月英语四级真题及参考答案,各位正在备考大学英语四级考试的考生可以作为考前参考。

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2021年6月英语四级真题及参考答案

  Part I   Writing  (30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay titled “Are people becoming addicted to technology?”. The statement given below is for your reference. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

  Numerous studies claim that addiction to technology is real and it has the same effect on the brain as drug addition.

  【参考范文】

  Are people becoming addicted to technology?

  With technology advancing daily, there has been an increase in the number of people who become addicted to technological inventions, such as computers and cellphones. From my point of view, this trend can harmfully influence individuals in many ways.

  The negative consequences of technology addiction can be illustrated from two aspects. For one thing, being indulged in technological gadgets is detrimental to students’ academic performance. For example, many university students stay up all night to play video games and thus feel drowsy and distracted in class. In addition, many psychological researchers found that the excessive use of technological devices can have an adverse effect on individuals’ mental well-being and interpersonal relationship. For instance, modern people, especially youngsters, are reluctant to interact face to face with their friends and families because of the indulgence in online social media platforms or computer games.

  In conclusion, it is of utmost importance to take actions to counteract the negative effects mentioned above. Perhaps the first step is that students should be educated to use technological devices in a rational way.

  【解析】

  本次四级作文考查的是现象影响类的论说文。题目给出的是一个负面的现象——人们沉迷于科技产品。采用三段式:开头段引出负面现象并发表自己的看法;第二段,即主体段论述该现象带来的负面影响;结尾段给出针对性的建议。

  Part II Listening Comprehension (25 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

  Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.

  1. A) Enroll him in a Newcastle football club.

  B) Send him to an after-school art class.

  C) Forbid him to draw in his workbook.

  D) Help him post his drawings online.

  2. A) Contacted Joe to decorate its dining-room.

  B) Hired Joe to paint all the walls of its buildings.

  C) Renovated its kitchen and all the dining-rooms.

  D) Asked Joe for permission to use his online drawings.

  Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.

  A) Get her pet dog back.B) Beg for help from the police.

  C) Identify the suspect or the security video.

  D) Post pictures of her pet dog on social media.

  4. A) It is suffering a great deal from the incident.

  B) It is helping the police with the investigation.

  C) It is bringing the case to the local district court.

  D) It is offering a big reward to anyone who helps.

  Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.

  5. A) Provide free meals to the local poor.

  B) Help people connect with each other.

  C) Help eliminate class difference in his area.

  D) Provide customers with first-class service.

  6. A) It does not supervise its employees.

  B) It donates regularly to a local charity.

  C) It does not use volunteers.

  D) It is open round the clock.

  7. A) They will realise the importance of communication.

  B) They will come to the café even more frequently.

  C) They will care less about their own background.

  D) They will find they have something in common.

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

  Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  8. A) A surprise party for Paul’s birthday.

  B) Travel plans for the coming weekend.

  C) Preparations for Saturday’s get-together.

  D) The new market on the other side of town.

  9. A) It makes the hostess’s job a whole lot easier.

  B) It enables guests to walk around and chat freely.

  C) It saves considerable time and labor.

  D) It requires fewer tables and chairs.

  10. A) It offers some big discounts.

  B) It is quite close to her house.

  C) It is more spacious and less crowded.

  D) It sells local wines and soft drinks.

  11. A) Cook a dish for the party.

  B) Arrive 10 minutes earlier.

  C) Prepare a few opening remarks.

  D) Bring his computer and speakers.

  Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  12. A) For commuting to work.

  B) For long-distance travel.

  C) For getting around in Miami.

  D) For convenience at weekends.

  13. A) They are reliable.

  B) They are compact.

  C) They are suspicious.

  D) They are easy to drive.

  14. A) Buy a second-hand car.

  B) Trust her own judgement.

  C) Seek advice from his friend.

  D) Look around before deciding.

  15. A) He sells new cars.

  B) He can be trusted.

  C) He is starting a business.

  D) He is a successful car dealer.

  Section C

  Directions: In this section, you will hear three passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

  Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  A) Many escaped from farms and became wild.B) They were actually native to North America.

  C) Many got killed in the wild when searching for food.

  D) They were hunted by Spanish and Russian explorers.

  17. A) They often make sudden attacks on people.

  B) They break up nature’s food supply chain.

  C) They cause much environmental pollution.

  D) They carry a great many diseases.

  18. A) They lived peacefully with wild pigs.

  B) They ran out of food completely.

  C) They fell victim to eagles.

  D) They reproduced quickly.

  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  A) Taste coffee while in outer space.B) Roast coffee beans in outer space.

  C) Develop a new strain of coffee bean.

  D) Use a pressurised tank to brew coffee.

  A) They can easily get burned.B) They float around in the oven.

  C) They have to be heated to 360 ℃.

  D) They receive evenly distributed heat.

  21. A) They charged a high price for their space-roasted coffee beans.

  B) They set up a branch in Dubai to manufacture coffee roasters.

  C) They collaborated on building the first space coffee machine.

  D) They abandoned the attempt to roast coffee beans in space.

  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  22. A) It is the best time for sightseeing.

  B) A race passes through it annually.

  C) They come to clean the Iditarod Trail.

  D) It is when the villagers choose a queen.

  23. A) Its children’s baking skills.

  B) Its unique winter scenery.

  C) Its tasty fruit pies.

  D) Its great food variety.

  24. A) The contestants.

  B) The entire village.

  C) Jan Newton and her friends.

  D) People from the state of Idaho.

  25. A) She owned a restaurant in Idaho.

  B) She married her husband in 1972.

  C) She went to Alaska to compete in a race.

  D) She helped the village to become famous.

  Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

  Most animals seek shade when temperatures in the Sahara Desert soar to 120 degrees Fahrenheit. But for the Saharan silver ants,  26   from their underground nests into the sun’s brutal rays to  27   for food, this is the perfect time to seek lunch. In 2015 these ants were joined in the desert by scientists from two Belgian universities, who spent a month in the  28  heat tracking the ants and digging out their nests. The goal was simple: to discover how the 29  adapted to the kind of heat that can 30  melt the bottom of shoes.

  Back in Belgium, the scientists looked at the ants under an electronic microscope and found that their 31  , triangular hair reflects light like a prism, giving them a metallic reflection and protecting them from the sun’s awful heat. When Ph.D. student Quentin Willot 32  the hair from an ant with 33_ knife and put it under a heat lamp, its temperature jumped.

  The ants’ method of staying cool is  34  among animals. Could this reflective type of hair protect people? Willot says companies are interested in  35  these ants’ method of heat protection for human use, including everything from helping to protect the lives of firefighters to keeping homes cool in summer.

  A) adaptingE) extremeI) remoteM) thick

  B) consciouslyF) huntJ) removedN) tiny

  C) crawlingG) literallyK) speciesO) unique

  D) crowdedH) moderateL) specimens

  【参考答案】

  26. C) crawling

  27. F) hunt

  28. E) extreme

  29. K) species

  30. G) literally

  31. M) thick

  32. J) removed

  33. N) tiny

  34. O) unique

  35. A) adapting

  【解析】

  词性选项单词汉语释义

  名词K) species物种

  L) specimens样品;样本;标本

  动词F) hunt打猎,猎取;猎杀;搜索

  形容词E) extreme极度的,极端的

  H) moderate适度的;中等的;温和的

  I) remote偏远的,偏僻的;遥远的

  M) thick厚的;粗的;浓密的

  N) tiny较小的;微小的

  O) unique唯一的;独一无二的;独特的

  副词B) consciously有意识地,自觉地

  G) literally字面上;真正地,确实地

  -ingA) adapting使适应,使适合;改编,改写

  C) crawling爬,爬行;匍匐行进

  -edD) crowded挤满,塞满;拥挤的

  J) removed移开;拿开;去掉

  26. C) crawling

  【解析】此题较难,可先空着不做,先做其他题目,最后再从未选选项中,选择符合语法结构且符合语意的单词填入本题。空格之后是完整的主谓宾结构:this is the perfect time to seek lunch,那说明空格之前需要填入非谓语形式,即-ing形式或-ed形式。选项中-ing形式和-ed形式的单词有:A) adapting、C) crawling、D) crowded、J) removed。符合此句语意且未被其他题目选择的选项只有C) crawling,空格处的中文意思是:从地下巢穴中爬出来。

  27. F) hunt

  【解析】空格前有不定式符号to,所以空格处一般填动词原形,构成to do形式。选项中动词原形只有一个:F) hunt(猎取)。把F)的汉语意思代入空格处:to hunt for food(猎取食物,寻找食物),语意非常通顺完整。所以答案选F) hunt。

  28 E) extreme

  【解析】空格前后是:in the ____ heat,可判断此处应填形容词。选项中形容词有:E) extreme、

  H) moderate、I) remote、M) thick、N) tiny、O) unique。能和空格后名词heat(温度,高温)搭配的只有E) :extreme heat极热;酷热。

  29 K) species

  【解析】空格前后是:how the ____ adapted to...,可判断空格处应填名词。选项中名词有:K) species(物种)、L) specimens(标本)。符合此处语意的只有K) species:发现这种物种是如何适应这种气温的。

  30 G) literally

  【解析】通过空格前后that can ____ melt the bottom of shoes,可判断,此that从句中主语是that(that指前面提到的名词短语the kind of heat),谓语是can melt,宾语是the bottom of shoes。所以that从句主谓宾结构完整,不缺少任何语法成分,所以空格处只能填副词,用来修饰整个句子。选项中副词有:B) consciously(有意识地)、G) literally(确实地)。符合空格处语意的只有G) literally:这种气温的的确确能把鞋底熔化。

  31 M) thick

  【解析】空格前后是their ____ triangular hair可知空格处需填形容词,空格处形容词和空格后形容词triangular,一起来修饰hair。选项中形容词有:E) extreme、H) moderate、I) remote、M) thick、N) tiny、O) unique。能和空格后名词hair(头发)搭配的只有M) thick:厚厚的头发。

  32 J) removed

  【解析】空格处需填when从句中的谓语。因为when从句的主语(Ph.D. student Quentin Willot)是第三人称单数形式,所以谓语动词第一不能是动词原形(如果填动词原形,则和主语的单数形式不搭配),第二不能是-ing形式(因为-ing形式是非谓语,不是谓语),空格处谓语动词只能填-ed形式。(而且空格处的-ed形式能和when从句中的第二个谓语动词put,用and并列起来,因为when主语是第三人称单数形式,所以此处put不是一般现在时,put是过去时态。此外,空格处的-ed形式还能和主句谓语jumped保持时态一致。)选项中-ed形式的单词有:D) crowded、J) removed。其中能和空格后from搭配使用,且符合语意的只有J) removed。

  33 N) tiny

  【解析】通过空格前后的with ____ knife,可知,此空格处填形容词。选项中形容词有:E) extreme、H) moderate、I) remote、M) thick、N) tiny、O) unique。能和空格后名词knife(剪刀)搭配且符合语意的只有N) tiny:小刀。

  34 O) unique

  【解析】通过空格前后is ____,可知此空格处可填形容词,也可填-ing形式、-ed形式。符合此条件的共有十个单词,但符合此句语意的只有O) unique:蚂蚁保持凉爽的方式在所有动物中是独特的。

  35 A) adapting

  【解析】空格前后是are interested in _____ these ants’ method,可知,此处考察固定搭配be interested in doing sth.,空格处应填-ing形式。选项中-ing形式的单词有:A) adapting(适应)、C) crawling(爬行)。能和空格后的名词method(方法)搭配使用的只有A) adapting。

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  What happens when a language has no words for numbers?

  Numbers do not exist in all cultures. There are numberless hunter-gatherers embedded deep in Amazonia, living along branches of the world’s largest river tree. Instead of using words for precise quantities, these people rely exclusively on terms analogous to “a few” or “some.”

  In contrast, our own lives are governed by numbers. As you read this, you are likely aware of what time it is, how old you are, your checking account balance, your weight and so on. The exact (and exacting) numbers we think with impact everything from our schedules to our self-esteem.

  But, in a historical sense, numerically fixated people like us are the unusual ones. For the bulk of our species’ approximately 200,000-year lifespan, we had no means of precisely representing quantities. What’s more, the 7,000 or so languages that exist today vary dramatically in how they utilize numbers.

  Speakers of anumeric, or numberless, languages offer a window into how the invention of numbers reshaped the human experience. In a new book, I explored the ways in which humans invented numbers, and how numbers subsequently played a critical role in other milestones, from the advent of agriculture to the genesis of writing.

  Cultures without numbers, or with only one or two precise numbers, include the Munduruku and Pirahã in Amazonia. Researchers have also studied some adults in Nicaragua who were never taught number words.

  Without numbers, healthy human adults struggle to precisely differentiate and recall quantities as low as four. In an experiment, a researcher will place nuts into a can one at a time, then remove them one by one. The person watching is asked to signal when all the nuts have been removed. Responses suggest that anumeric people have some trouble keeping track of how many nuts remain in the can, even if there are only four or five in total.

  This and many other experiments have converged upon a simple conclusion: When people do not have number words, they struggle to make quantitative distinctions that probably seem natural to someone like you or me. While only a small portion of the world’s languages are anumeric or nearly anumeric, they demonstrate that number words are not a human universal.

  It is worth stressing that these anumeric people are cognitively normal, well-adapted to the environs they have dominated for centuries. As the child of missionaries, I spent some of my youth living with anumeric indigenous people, the aforementioned Pirahã who live along the sinuous banks of the black Maici River. Like other outsiders, I was continually impressed by their superior understanding of the riverine ecology we shared.

  Yet numberless people struggle with tasks that require precise discrimination between quantities. Perhaps this should be unsurprising. After all, without counting, how can someone tell whether there are, say, seven or eight coconuts in a tree? Such seemingly straightforward distinctions become blurry through numberless eyes.

  This conclusion is echoed by work with anumeric children in industrialized societies.

  Prior to being spoon-fed number words, children can only approximately discriminate quantities beyond three. We must be handed the cognitive tools of numbers before we can consistently and easily recognize higher quantities.

  In fact, acquiring the exact meaning of number words is a painstaking process that takes children years. Initially, kids learn numbers much like they learn letters. They recognize that numbers are organized sequentially, but have little awareness of what each individual number means. With time, they start to understand that a given number represents a quantity greater by one than the preceding number. This “successor principle” is part of the foundation of our numerical cognition, but requires extensive practice to understand.

  None of us, then, is really a “numbers person.” We are not predisposed to handle quantitative distinctions adroitly. In the absence of the cultural traditions that infuse our lives with numbers from infancy, we would all struggle with even basic quantitative distinctions.

  Number words and written numerals transform our quantitative reasoning as they are coaxed into our cognitive experience by our parents, peers and school teachers. The process seems so normal that we sometimes think of it as a natural part of growing up, but it is not. Human brains come equipped with certain quantitative instincts that are refined with age, but these instincts are very limited. For instance, even at birth we are capable of distinguishing between two markedly different quantities — for instance, eight from 16 things.

  But we are not the only species capable of such abstractions. Compared to chimps and other primates, our numerical instincts are not as remarkable as many presume. We even share some basic instinctual quantitative reasoning with distant nonmammalian relatives like birds. Indeed, work with some other species, including parrots, suggests they too can refine their quantitative thought if they are introduced to the cognitive power tools we call numbers.

  So, how did we ever invent "unnatural" numbers in the first place?

  The answer is, literally, at your fingertips. The bulk of the world’s languages use base-10, base-20 or base-5 number systems. That is, these smaller numbers are the basis of larger numbers. English is a base-10 or decimal language, as evidenced by words like 14 (“four” + “10”) and 31 (“three” x “10” + “one”).

  We speak a decimal language because an ancestral tongue, proto-Indo-European, was decimally based. Proto-Indo-European was decimally oriented because, as in so many cultures, our linguistic ancestors’ hands served as the gateway to realizations like “five fingers on this hand is the same as five fingers on that hand.” Such transient thoughts were manifested into words and passed down across generations. This is why the word “five” in many languages is derived from the word for “hand.”

  Most number systems, then, are the by-product of two key factors: the human capacity for language and our propensity for focusing on our hands and fingers. This manual fixation — an indirect by-product of walking upright on two legs — has helped yield numbers in most cultures, but not all.

  Cultures without numbers also offer insight into the cognitive influence of particular numeric traditions. Consider what time it is. Your day is ruled by minutes and seconds, but these entities are not real in any physical sense and are nonexistent to numberless people. Minutes and seconds are the verbal and written vestiges of an uncommon base-60 number system used in Mesopotamia millennia ago. They reside in our minds, numerical artifacts that not all humans inherit conceptually.

  Research on the language of numbers shows, more and more, that one of our species’ key characteristics is tremendous linguistic and cognitive diversity. While there are undoubtedly cognitive commonalities across all human populations, our radically varied cultures foster profoundly different cognitive experiences. If we are to truly understand how much our cognitive lives differ cross-culturally, we must continually sound the depths of our species’ linguistic diversity.

  36. [E] It is worth stressing that these anumeric people are cognitively (在认知方面)normal, well-adapted to the surroundings they have dominated for centuries.

  37. [H] Compared with other mammals, our numerical instincts are not as remarkable as many assume.

  38. [E] It is worth stressing that these anumeric people are cognitively(在认知方面)normal, well-adapted to the surroundings they have dominated for centuries.

  39. [B] But, in a historical sense, number-conscious people like us are the unusual ones.

  40. [K] Research on the language of numbers shows, more and more, that one of our species’ key characteristics is tremendous linguistic(语言的) and cognitive diversity.

  41. [D] This and many other experiments have led to a simple conclusion: When people do not have number words, they struggle to make quantitative distinctions that probably seem natural to someone like you or me.

  42. [G] None of us, then, is really a “numbers person.” We are not born to handle quantitative distinctions skillfully.

  43. [A] Numbers do not exist in all cultures.

  44. [I] So, how did we ever invent “unnatural” numbers in the first place? The answer is, literally, at your fingertips.

  45. [F] This conclusion is echoed by work with anumeric children in industrialized societies.

  Section C

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

  Educators and business leaders have more in common than it may seem. Teachers want to prepare students for a successful future. Technology companies have an interest in developing a workforce with the STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) skills needed to grow the company and advance the industry. How can they wok together to achieve these goals? Play may be the answer.

  Focusing on STEM skills is important,but the reality is that STEM skills are enhanced and more relevant when combined with traditional, hands-on creative activities. This combination is proving to be the best way to prepare today's children to be the makers and builders of tomorrow. That is why technology companies are partnering with educators to bring back good, old-fashioned play.

  In fact many experts argue that the most important 2lst-century skills aren't related to specific technologies or subject matter, but to creativity; skills like imagination, problem-finding and problem-solving, teamwork, optimism, patience and the ability to experiment and take risks. These are skills acquired when kids tinker (鼓捣小玩意) , High-tech industries such as NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory have found that their best overall problem solvers were master tinkerers in their youth.

  There are cognitive (认知的) benefits of doing things the way we did as children — building something, tearing it down, then building it up again. Research shows that given 15 minutes of free play, four- and five-year-olds will spend a third of this time engaged in spatial, mathematical, and architectural activities. This type of play—especially with building blocks—helps children discover and develop key principles in math and geometry.

  If play and building are critical to 21st century skill development, that's really good news for two reasons: Children are born builders, makers, and creators, so fostering(培养) 21st century skills may be as simple as giving kids room to play, tinker and try things out, even as they grow older; Secondly, it doesn't take 21st century technology to foster 21st century skills. This is especially important for under-resourced schools and communities. Taking whatever materials are handy and tinkering with them is a simple way to engage those important “maker” skills. And anyone, anywhere, can do it.

  46.What does the author say about educators?

  They seek advice from technology companies to achieve teaching goals.

  They have been successful in preparing the workforce for companies.

  They help students acquire the skills needed for their future success.

  They partner with technology companies to enhance teaching efficiency.

  How can educators better develop students’ STEM skills, according to the author?

  By blending them with traditional, stimulating activities.

  By inviting business leaders to help design curriculums.

  By enhancing students’ ability to think in a critical way.

  By showing students the best way to learn is through play.

  How do children acquire the skills needed for the 21 st century?

  By engaging in activities involving specific technologies.

  By playing with things to solve problems on their own.

  By familiarizing themselves with high-tech gadgets.

  By mastering basic principles through teamwork.

  What can we do to help children learn the basics of math and geometry?

  Stimulate their interest as early as possible.

  Spend more time playing games with them.

  Encourage them to make things with hands.

  Allow them to tinker freely with calculators.

  What does the author advise disadvantaged schools and communities to do?

  Train students to be makers to meet future market demands.

  Develop students’ creative skills with the resources available.

  Engage students with challenging tasks to foster their creativity.

  Work together with companies to improve their teaching facilities.

  【参考答案】

  46. C) They help students acquire the skills needed for their future success.

  47. A) By blending them with traditional, stimulating activities.

  48. B) By playing with things to solve problems on their own.

  49. C) Encourage them to make things with hands.

  50. B) Develop students’ creative skills with the resources available.

  【解析】

  46. What does the author say about educators?

  定位:根据题干关键词educators可以将答案定位至文章的第一段。

  原文定位句:Educators and business leaders have more in common than it may seem. Teachers want to prepare students for a successful future. Technology companies have an interest in developing a workforce with the STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) skills needed to grow the company and advance the industry.

  选项C:They help students acquire the skills needed for their future success.

  同义复现总结:the skills needed(选项C) =skills needed(原文)。

  同义替换总结:for their future success(选项C)= for a successful future(原文)。

  定位句汉语意思:教育家和商界领袖的共同点比看上去更多。老师想让学生为成功的未来做好准备。科技公司有兴趣培养一支具备STEM(科学、技术、工程和数学)技能的员工队伍,以发展公司和推动行业发展。

  选项C汉语意思:他们帮助学生获得未来成功所需的技能。

  选项C和定位句语意一致,其他三个选项和定位句语意不符。

  47. How can educators better develop students’ STEM skills, according to the author?

  定位:根据题干关键词STEM skills可以将答案定位至文章的第二段第一句。

  原文定位句:Focusing on STEM skills is important,but the reality is that STEM skills are enhanced and more relevant when combined with traditional, hands-on creative activities.

  选项A:By blending them with traditional, stimulating activities.

  同义替换总结:blending them with traditional, stimulating activities(选项A)= combined with traditional, hands-on creative activities(原文)。

  原文定位句汉语意思:专注于 STEM 技能很重要,但现实情况是,当与传统的动手创意活动相结合时,STEM 技能会得到增强且更具相关性。

  选项A汉语意思:通过将它们与传统的、激励人的活动相结合。

  选项A和定位句语意一致,其他三个选项和定位句语意不符。

  48. How do children acquire the skills needed for the 21 st century?

  定位:根据题干关键词the 21 st century可以将答案定位至文章的第三段第一句。

  原文定位句:In fact many experts argue that the most important 2lst-century skills aren’t related to specific technologies or subject matter, but to creativity; skills like imagination, problem-finding and problem-solving, teamwork, optimism, patience and the ability to experiment and take risks.

  选项B:By playing with things to solve problems on their own.

  同义替换总结:solve problems(选项B)= problem-solving(原文)。

  原文定位句汉语意思:事实上,许多专家认为,21 世纪最重要的技能与特定技术或主题无关,而是与创造力有关。想象力、发现问题和解决问题的能力、团队合作、乐观、耐心以及实验和承担风险的能力。

  选项B汉语意思:通过玩弄事物来自己解决问题。

  选项B和定位句语意一致,其他三个选项和定位句语意不符。

  49. What can we do to help children learn the basics of math and geometry?

  定位:根据题干关键词math and geometry可以将答案定位至文章的第四段最后一句。但因为第四段最后一句的主语This type of play出现了指代词this,this指代前文提到的内容,所以还需要往前文看。本题需要通读整个第四段才能解题。

  原文定位句:There are cognitive (认知的) benefits of doing things the way we did as children — building something, tearing it down, then building it up again. Research shows that given 15 minutes of free play, four- and five-year-olds will spend a third of this time engaged in spatial, mathematical, and architectural activities. This type of play—especially with building blocks—helps children discover and develop key principles in math and geometry.

  选项C:Encourage them to make things with hands.

  同义替换总结:make things with hands(选项B)=doing things——building something, tearing it down, then building it up again(原文)。

  原文定位句汉语意思:以我们小时候的方式做事有认知上的好处——建造、拆除、然后重新建造。研究表明,如果有15分钟的自由玩耍时间,4岁和5岁的孩子将有三分之一的时间用于空间、数学和建筑活动。这种类型的游戏——尤其是使用积木——帮助孩子们发现和发展数学和几何的关键原则。

  选项C汉语意思:鼓励他们用手制作东西。

  选项C和定位句语意一致,其他三个选项和定位句语意不符。

  50. What does the author advise disadvantaged schools and communities to do?

  定位:根据题干关键词disadvantaged schools and communities可以将答案定位至文章的最后一段的倒数第二句和倒数第三句。

  原文定位句:This is especially important for under-resourced schools and communities. Taking whatever materials are handy and tinkering with them is a simple way to engage those important “maker” skills.

  选项B:Develop students’ creative skills with the resources available.

  同义替换总结:with the resources available(选项B)= Taking whatever materials are handy(原文)。

  原文定位句汉语意思:这对于资源不足的学校和社区尤其重要。使用手头的材料,鼓捣鼓捣,这就是一种简单的方法,使手头资源和这些重要的“创客”技能链接起来。

  选项B汉语意思:利用现有的资源培养学生的创造性能力。

  选项B和定位句语意一致,其他三个选项和定位句语意不符。

  Passage Two

  Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

  A recent study revealed the sugar industry’s efforts 50 years ago to shape medical opinion on how sugar affects health. But today, scores of companies continue to fund food and nutrition studies.

  That describes the reaction of many Americans this week following revelations that, 50 years ago, the sugar industry paid Harvard scientists for research that shifted the focus away from sugar’s role in heart disease — and put the spotlight squarely on dietary fat.

  What might surprise consumers is just how many present-day nutrition studies are still funded by the food industry.

  Nutrition scholar Marion Nestle of New York University spent a year informally tracking industry-funded studies on food. “Roughly 90% of nearly 170 studies favored the sponsor’s interest,” Nestle tells us via email. Other, systematic reviews support her conclusions.

  For instance, studies funded by Welch Foods — the brand behind Welch’s 100% Grape Juice — found that drinking Concord grape juice daily may boost brain function. Another, funded by Quaker Oats, concluded, as a Daily Mail story put it, that “hot oatmeal breakfast keeps you full for longer.”

  While these examples might induce chuckles, the past year has seen several exposes that have raised serious concerns about the extent of industry’s influence on food and nutrition research outcomes.

  Last year, The New York Times revealed how Coca-Cola was funding high-profile scientists and organizations promoting a message that, in the battle against weight gain, people should pay more attention to exercise and less to what they eat and drink. In the aftermath of that investigation, Coca-Cola released data detailing its funding of several medical institutions and associations between 2010 and 2015, from the Academy of Family Physicians to the American Academy of Pediatrics. All told, Coca-Cola says it gave $132.8 million toward scientific research and partnerships.

  And earlier this summer, the Associated Press released an investigation that looked at research funded by the National Confectioners Association, a trade group whose members include the makers of Tootsie Rolls, Hershey’s kisses and Snickers bars. One study the group funded concluded that kids who eat candy tend to weigh less than those who don’t. In an email to her co-author, the AP reported, one of the scientists behind that study wrote that the finding was “thin and clearly padded.” Nonetheless, the paper was published in a journal called Food & Nutrition Research.

  “It’s definitely a problem that so much research in nutrition and health is funded by industry,” says Bonnie Liebman, director of nutrition at the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a nonprofit advocacy g